Last time we examined the five “universal rules of information” and found out that information is always present when all the following five hierarchical levels are observed in a system: statistics, syntax, semantics, pragmatics and apobetics. If these five rules apply to a system in question, then we can be certain that the system falls within the domain of our definition of information. So now, let’s examine the scientific laws of information.
Scientific Law of Information-1 (SLI-1): A material entity cannot generate a non-material entity
Most of us have observed that an apple tree bears apples, a marigold produces marigold seeds, horses give birth to foals, and women bear human babies. We can then observe that something which is itself solely material never creates anything non-material.
Scientific Law of Information-2 (SLI-2): Universal information is a non-material fundamental entity
The reality in which we live is divisible into two fundamentally distinguishable realms: namely, the material and the non-material. Matter involves mass, which is weighable in a gravitational field. In contrast, all non-material entities (e.g. information, consciousness, intelligence and will) are massless and thus have zero weight. Information is always based on an idea; it is thus also massless and does not arise from physical or chemical processes. Information is also not correlated with matter in the same way as energy, momentum or electricity is. However, information is stored, transmitted and expressed through matter and energy.
Now we need to distinguish between Necessary Conditions and Sufficient Conditions. Stay with me, we’ll get through this logically and scientifically.
Necessary Condition (NC): That a non-material entity must be massless (NC: m = 0) is indeed a necessary condition, but it is not sufficient to assign it as non-material. To be precise, the “sufficient conditions” must also be met.
Sufficient Condition (SC): An observed entity can be judged to be “non-material” if it has no physical or chemical correlation with matter. This is always the case if the following four conditions are met: SC1: The entity has no physical or chemical interaction with matter. SC2: The entity is not a property of matter.
SC3: The entity does originate in pure matter. SC4: The entity is not correlated with matter.
Photons are massless particles and they are a good contrast to the SC because they do interact with matter and can originate from and be correlated with matter.
Information always depends on an idea; it is massless and does not originate from a physical or chemical process. The necessary condition (NC: m = 0) and also all four sufficient conditions (SC1 to SC4) are also fulfilled, and therefore universal information is a non-material entity. The fact that it requires matter for storage and transportation does not turn it into matter. Thus we can state:
Universal Information is a non-material entity because it fulfils both necessary conditions:
- it is massless; and,
- it is neither physically nor chemically correlated with matter.
There is another very powerful justification for stating that information cannot be a physical quantity. The SI System of units has seven base units: mass, length, electric current, temperature, amount of substance, luminous intensity and time. All physical quantities can be expressed in terms of one of these base units (e.g. area = length x length) or by a combination (by multiplication or division) of several base units (e.g. momentum = mass x length / time). This is not possible in the case of information and therefore information is not a physical magnitude.
Scientific Law of Information-3 (SLI-3):
Universal information cannot be created by any statistical processes. The grand theory of evolution might make some sense if it could be demonstrated, in a real experiment, that information could arise from matter left to itself without the addition of intelligence. This has never been observed. To date, evolutionary theoreticians have only been able to offer computer simulations that depend upon principles of design and the operation of pre-determined information. These simulations do not correspond to reality because the theoreticians pre-prejudice the programs with their own presumptions and assumed information into the simulations.
Scientific Law of Information-4 (SLI-4): Universal information can only be produced by an intelligent sender
What is an intelligent sender? Several attributes are required to define an intelligent sender.
Definition D1: An intelligent sender as mentioned in SLI-4 1) is conscious 2) has a will of its own
3) is creative
4) thinks autonomously
5) acts purposefully
SLI-4 is a very general law from which several more specific laws or refinements can be derived. We can look up and study the Maxwell equations from physics. It describes, in a brilliant generalization, the relationship between changing electric and magnetic fields. For most of us these equations are far too complex so we use more specific formulations, such as Ohm’s Law, or the induction law.
Time to rest, my brain is swimming uphill. The next edition will present four specific refinements of SLI-4 (SLI-4a to 4d) that will be easier to use for our conclusions.
1) Gitt, W., In the Beginning was Information, 3rd English ed., Christliche Literatur-Verbreitung, Bielefeld, Germany, 2001. Gitt, W., Am Anfang war die Information, 3. überarbeitete und erweiterte Auflage, Hänssler Verlag, Holzgerlingen, 2002. pp. 128–131
 Information can direct, steer, control and optimize the running of material processes. These processes are carried out by programs that are freely thought out and designed. They are not based on physical or chemical correlations between matter and information. In contrast, there is a definite chemical correlation between hydrogen and oxygen that under certain circumstances will combine to produce water.
 “Will” here does not mean a decision that a computer makes following a particular algorithm; rather; it signifies a personified will that is able to reach a free and arbitrary decision that cannot be predicted in advance.