The Beauty of it All

Frost Flowers

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A frost flower is a name commonly given to a condition in which thin layers of ice are extruded from long-stemmed plants in autumn or early winter. The thin layers of ice are often formed into exquisite patterns that curl into “petals” that resemble flowers. The formation of frost flowers is dependent on a freezing weather condition occurring when the ground is not already frozen. The sap in the stem of the plants will expand (water expands when frozen), causing long, thin cracks to form along the length of the stem. Water is then drawn through these cracks via capillary action and freezes upon contact with the air. As more water is drawn through the cracks it pushes the thin ice layers further from the stem, causing a thin “petal” to form. In the case of woody plants and (living or dead) tree branches the freezing water is squeezed through the pores of the plant forming long thin strings of ice that look uncannily like hair i.e. “hair ice” or “frost beard”.

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Glossary

Higgs Boson Revisited

Higgs Boson Wallpaper HD - And now what

The Higgs boson is popularly referred to as “the God particle,” perhaps because of its role in giving other particles their mass. However, it’s not the boson itself that gives mass. Back in 1964, Peter Higgs proposed a theory that described a universal field (similar to an electric or a magnetic field) that particles interacted with. Don Lincoln, a physicist at Fermilab in Illinois, explained to ABC News, “It’s the Higgs field that gives particles their mass.”

The boson itself is more like evidence that the Higgs field exists. Lincoln says to think of the Higgs field and boson as water and waves. “Because you see the waves themselves, you know there’s water,” he said. “If we didn’t see waves, we’d always wonder if there was actually water or not.” Since physicists have seen a particle that looks a whole lot like the Higgs boson, they’re pretty sure that the Higgs field exists.

Higgs’s original theory made very specific predictions about the boson’s properties (like its electric charge and its quantum spin) as well as how it would interact with its environment (such as what types of particles it would decay into). Since last July, physicists have had their hands full, analyzing a newer and bigger set of data from CERN’s Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the world’s most powerful particle accelerator. It was the LHC that first provided
researchers with evidence of the Higgs boson’s existence, and the new data fits in line with Higgs’s theory and provides even more evidence that CERN has truly found the Higgs boson.

The existence of the Higgs boson fills in an important blank for the Standard Model, a theory that explains the behavior of particles. Without proving its existence, mass could not be explained. “For a theory that describes matter, that’s a pretty big deficiency, (emphasis addded) “ said Tipton.

CERN is looking to do more with the Higgs boson than simply confirm its existence. Lincoln says that there’s a very large discrepancy that still needs to be addressed. The Higgs-boson-like particle observed at the LHC a year ago has about 100 trillion times less than energy than what the Standard Model predicts.

Gee, maybe the model needs to be revised if it is off by 100 trillion times and if you search for “images higgs boson” they are all artists renderings- no actual images from the so called discovery exist.

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