The Science of it All

FUDGE FACTORS for the big bang

I’ve discussed this several times, the number of FUDGE FACTORS used by astrophysicists and cosmologists to try to get both sides of their convoluted equations to match up. I’ve put together a listing of the most obvious problems they can’t explain. Maybe at another time I’ll put together a list of the unverified data that drives their belief in these fudge factors.


Cosmologists tell us we live in a universe filled with invisible, unobserved stuff—74% dark energy and 22% dark matter. Only 4% of the matter/energy content of the Universe is supposed to be the ordinary atoms that we are familiar with- that makes up everything we see on our earth and in the sky.

For 40 years, one form or another of dark matter has been sought in the lab,[i] the axion[ii], for example. Another missing particle the paraphoton—a WISP (Weakly Interacting Slim Particle) not a WIMP (Weakly Interacting Massive Particle) has been searched for but to no luck.

Lieu lists five evidences where cosmologists use ‘unknowns’ to explain ‘unknowns’, and hence he says they are not really astrophysicists. Yet these evidences are claimed to be all explained (and in the case of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB)[iii] radiation even predicted) by the ΛCDM[iv] inflation model. None of them are based on laboratory experiments and they are unlikely to be ever explained this way. They are:

  1. redshift of light from galaxies, explained by expansion of space,
  2. Cosmic Microwave Background radiation, explained as the afterglow of the Big Bang,
  3. perceived motion of stars and gases in the disks of spiral galaxies, explained by dark matter,
  4. distant supernovae[v] being dimmer than they should be hence an accelerating universe, explained by dark energy,
  5. flatness (space has Euclidean geometry) and isotropy[vi], explained by inflation.10

The ‘unknowns’ in the lab (meaning not known in any way shape or form to physics today) are listed in bold type.

  1. ΛCDM = cold dark matter cosmology with a non-zero cosmological constant, that also involves a rapid Inflation stage to smooth out the clumpiness of the early density variations and solve numerous other problems, including the lack of monopoles. Which the Big Bang Theory had the four guys traveling to the North Pole for three months to try to detect them.
  2. CMB=cosmic microwave background radiation..
  3. The metric expansion of space[vii] is the increase of the distance between two distant parts of the universe with time. It is an intrinsic expansion whereby the scale of space itself is changed. That is, a metric expansion is defined by an increase in distance between parts of the universe even without those parts “moving” anywhere.
  4. The speeds of gases (and stars) in the outer regions of the disk in spiral galaxies are inferred from Doppler line redshifts or blueshifts and they don’t obey Keplarian motion as predicted by Newton’s law of gravitation.
  5. Inflation is the extremely rapid exponential expansion of the early universe by a factor of at least 1078 in volume, driven by a negative-pressure vacuum energy density. The inflationary epoch comprises the first part of the electroweak epoch following the grand unification epoch. It lasted from 10−36 seconds after the Big Bang to sometime between 10−33 and 10−32 seconds. Following the inflationary period, the universe continued to expand, but at a slower rate.

The cosmologists may shore up their faith in a model that is based on false and unverifiable assumptions, but the fact is that the history of the universe cannot be determined from a model which cannot be independently tested. No matter how many fudge factors are needed for the model to describe the observations. The Big Bang cosmology is verified in the minds of those who already hold to that belief—that the Universe created itself about 14 billion years ago—ex nihilo.

“In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth” is far more believable—eventually we can fill in the details.




[ii] and



[v] Supernova = exploding star. A certain class, type Ia, is used as a standard light source to measure distance in the cosmos.

[vi] Flatness describes the fact that all we ever measure in the universe is Euclidean. This is a cosmological fine-tuning problem and since the Universe has departed from the needed critical density over cosmic time it must have been closer to perfect flatness soon after the Big Bang. Another problem is the horizon problem which has to do with the fact that light has not had enough time since the Big Bang to travel between what should be causally coherent regions of the visible universe, which means they are not causally connected. For example, light from diametrically opposite side of the Universe. Then why is it isotropic generally in every direction we look. This is particularly true for the temperature of CMB radiation where we see the same thing—the Universe is isotropic, the same in all directions to within 1 part in 104 at least. This is called the smoothness problem and it is even more incredible because as the Universe expanded the isotropy supposedly lessened, starting at the level of 1 part in 1040.




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