This is a tough subject to deal with because we have to delve into some heavy-duty science of biology and genetics. For me to simplify it for the average reader without losing the technical aspect for the more advanced will be somewhat of a challenge. Along the way, I’m going to insert comments in the text that will look like this (This is a comment I have on what you just read). I will be doing this because I want you to read and understand what the official secular scientist has to believe in and I’ll be pointing out things that I believe are wrong with that thought.
Now we have to clarify some of the terminology we will be using in this and future articles. This is usually where I lose Gomer and Goober of Mayberry High, but most others manage to end up with a little more understanding of genetic biology.
Acrocentric = describes a chromosome that has arms of unequal length, because the structure at which the two arms join centromere is located toward one end.
Chimera = is a single organism composed of genetically distinct cells. This can result in male and female organs, two different blood types, or subtle variations in form. (Not the monster from Greek mythology that breathes fire and has a lion’s head, a goat’s body, and a snake’s tail)
Centromere = the point on a chromosome by which it is attached to a spindle fiber during cell division.
Chromatin = the readily stainable substance of a cell nucleus, consisting of DNA, RNA, and various proteins, that forms chromosomes during cell division.
Chromosome = a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes.
Diploid = a cell or nucleus containing two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent
Eukaryote = A single-celled or multicellular organism whose cells contain a distinct membrane-bound nucleus.
Gene = a part of a cell that controls or influences the appearance, growth, etc., of a living thing. (Definition I grew up with)
Gene = a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is located usually on a chromosome and that is the functional unit of inheritance controlling the transmission and expression of one or more traits by specifying the structure of a particular polypeptide and especially a protein or controlling the function of other genetic material. (Full definition)
Genetic = relating to or determined by the origin, development, or causal antecedents of something
Genome = the complete set of genes or genetic material present in a cell or organism
Histone = any of a group of basic proteins found in chromatin.
Putative = commonly accepted or supposed. (Not the facts but what is believed)
Telomeres = The end of a chromosome. The ends of chromosomes are specialized structures that are involved in the replication and stability of DNA molecules.
Synteny = the presence together on the same chromosome of two or more gene loci whether or not in such proximity that they may be subject to linkage
So let us get started with the basics, if your head isn’t already spinning from just the definitions we will be using.
Chromosomes are packages of DNA, wound around proteins called histones. Humans have 23 chromosome pairs, as we inherit 23 chromosomes from our father and 23 from our mother. Chimps inherit 24 chromosomes from each parent and have 24 chromosome pairs. Although far from being beyond a reasonable doubt, the secular scientists make the case that humans did, indeed, have 24 chromosome pairs originally, and that chromosome fusion[i],[ii] has occurred, resulting in our now having only 23. For the sake of the argument, let us concede that this is true.[iii]
Kenneth Miller is Professor of Biology at Brown University, Rhode Island, and a prominent critic of creationism and the intelligent design movement. He has supported court actions against schools that seek to include Intelligent Design as an alternative to evolutionary indoctrination, even appearing as a witness for the plaintiffs,[iv] and regularly speaks in defense of the teaching of evolution as a scientifically proven fact.
According to Miller, there are only two possible explanations for the difference in the number of chromosomes. The first is that we share a common ancestor with chimps and that, during the course of evolution, chromosome fusion has taken place. The second is that the creator/designer made humans with chromosomes which have the appearance of having been fused at some time in the past. The second explanation, he argued, is ridiculous, thus showing the first to be correct. (Of course, the assumption that chromosomal fusion existed and how they are supposed to appear under an electron microscope is purely speculation, and is ‘ridiculous’ really a scientific finding of fact?)
The incredible logical fallacies from a highly esteemed scientist in his field, which we will take apart piece by piece is amazing. Miller, a vociferous protagonist of evolution ridiculed the idea that DNA provided evidence for intelligent design, describing human DNA as a ‘hodgepodge of borrowed, copied, mutated and discarded sequences and commands that has been cobbled together by millions of years of trial and error.’[v]
The reason for the lack of consistency is in what is commonly called the ‘Evolutionary Paradigm.’ If it is accepted that ‘evolution is a fact’ then any data gathered will always be interpreted according to this belief—despite whether or not there is a valid alternative interpretation of that data. If humans had been found to have 24 chromosome pairs, this would have been understood as evidence for common ancestry with apes because apes also have 24. Since humans actually have 23, it is understood that this provides evidence that evolution resulted in two ape chromosomes being fused together. For the evolutionists, then, it’s ‘heads I win, tails you lose’. (Nothing like stacking the deck in your favor).
One of the leading molecular arguments for human evolution from a shared common ancestor with apes, particularly chimpanzees, is the ‘chromosome 2 fusion model’. This scenario involves the claim that the fusion of two small chimpanzee-like chromosomes (2A and 2B) formed one stable chimera chromosome in humans, leading to the difference in diploid[vi] chromosome numbers between humans and great apes. A majority of the data for the fusion model is based on DNA hybridization and chromosomal staining experiments conducted prior to the sequencing of the human and chimpanzee genomes. This was the beginning of the ‘Evolutionary Paradigm’ which the secular scientists cling onto with such passion.
We will cover this particular sequence before covering the fallacies of the human and ape genome. It is the mindset that was developed during this early stage of genetic research that has created the ‘infallible’ concept that the secular scientists will distort whatever new information comes up to continue to justify their preconceived notions.
Much of the research supporting this hypothetical model is based on indirect evidence derived from DNA hybridization and chromosomal staining techniques. These techniques provide only approximate estimates of sequence similarity, with hybridization-based analyses being more accurate than the analysis of stained chromosomal bands[vii]. This type of initial evidence, along with some targeted DNA sequencing of small genomic regions in human, seemed to indicate support for the fusion model.
The second key site purportedly represents a cryptic, non-functional centromere that was silenced following the fusion event (because a single functional centromere is required for chromosome stability and function). According to these claims, this fusion event accounts for the fact that humans have only 46 (2N) chromosomes and the great apes 48 (2N). Actually, the diploid genomes of gorilla, chimpanzee and orangutan have 48 but some gibbons have 44, and one Malaysian ape has 50.[viii] The fusion model scenario involves a hominid evolved from a shared common ancestor with a diploid genome of 48 chromosomes, and, in some early human ancestor, two chromosomes fused, reducing the diploid chromosome complement to 46.
So from the start they assumed that all apes had 48 (2N) and did not bother to change their beliefs once a more accurate counting of the ape genome occurred. Couldn’t we have been related to the gibbon with 44 pairs and we have 2 pairs separate into smaller pairs to make the 46 human pairs? How closely related are the entire ape family if there is such variation in their chromosomes?
The actual chromosome number is about operational science, the repeatable, observable facts about the world and how it works. Evolution, on the other hand, is about historical science, where the facts are not at issue—it’s all about interpretation. Evolution/long ages has become the ruling paradigm, a framework of thought that is taken for granted and is used as the foundation for how all other data is then interpreted.
It was previously believed that humans and chimps shared a common ancestor only 2 to 6 million years ago. Now they are claiming that it is 11 to 17 million years ago with the average being about 13.The reality of the situation is that simply adding more time doesn’t solve evolution’s immense problems. Giving evolution another 6 or 7 million years still does not explain why chimps and humans are so vastly different, not only in their anatomy and behavioral traits but also the glaring 30% difference in their genomes—some 900,000,000 DNA letter differences. Jesus Christ compared this type of philosophically flawed selective attitude to “straining out a gnat and swallowing a camel!” (Matthew 23:24. ESV). When the entire genomes are compared between humans and chimps, it becomes clear that they were each engineered uniquely and separately by an Omnipotent Creator.
Bill Gates, one of the founders of Microsoft, declared in his book, ‘DNA is like a computer program but far, far more advanced than any software ever created.’[ix] Indeed, rather than being the hodgepodge that Kenneth Miller claims it to be, DNA appears to be the most complex, ingenious and awe-inspiring information system that mankind will ever behold.
Next article “Chromosome Fusion 2 Debunked” We will get into more and more scientific detail with graphs and pictures in the next two segments.
[iii] Sodera, V., One small speck to man—the evolution myth, 2nd edn, ch. 12, Vij Sodera Productions, 2009
[iv] Selman v. Cobb County, 2005 and Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District, 2005.
[v] Wells, J., The myth of junk DNA, Discovery Institute Press, Seattle, 2011 p.22.
[vi] Is a cell or nucleus containing two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent.
[vii] Yunis, J.J. and Prakash, O., The origin of man: a chromosomal pictorial legacy, Science 215:1525–1530, 1982
[viii] Jauch, A. et al., Reconstruction of genomic rearrangements in great apes and gibbons by chromosome painting, PNAS89:8611–8615, 1992.
[ix] Gates, B., The Road Ahead, Penguin Group, New York, p. 188, 1995.