Part 1 of this introduction for non-believers laid out the argument that strong non-believers contradict their own worldviews by believing the universe has a natural cause despite the lack of observational evidence for such a belief. Since there is no direct observational evidence regarding the origin of the universe, why should anyone believe the equally unobserved hypothesis that God created the universe?
While there is no direct evidence for the cause of the universe, we do have a fair amount of knowledge about the early history of the universe and the various physical laws that govern it- whether you believe in old-earth or young-earth theory. This provides us with indirect evidence that a super-intelligent Creator designed the universe.
To keep this essay brief, much of the supporting information will not be included, but the links to the full-length articles you can read for the details will be at the end. If you have any questions about any of the facts presented, feel free to email me at LEMBlogs@suddenlink.net and I’ll clarify the data for you.
Way to many people don’t do their research and fall for half-truths. It is especially important in the area of Biblical studies because many ‘popular’ Biblical ‘scholarly’ books being written have many doctrinal fallacies to prove their point. I have included the book covers of some of the ones I have read for this article.
( Yes, I am documenting some of them and will write an article on it. Such as the above Hugh Ross is appearing to be the leader of the religious big bang theory and long earth beliefs, by misinterpreting the Hebrew language to suit his belief and reinterpreting biblical passages to say what fits into his theory. It is an interesting book, but be careful reading it and Sarfati’s ‘Refuting Compromise’ is a great rebuttal-same information-totally different viewpoints).
First we have the non-believers who say that science cannot have anything to say about the existence of God, and then we have the “new non-believers” who think that they can prove the non-existence of God through science. Although science cannot directly detect God, it can examine His creation or for the non-believers the known world around us. Now how do we do that?
We all accept that love exists, knowing full well that love cannot be directly measured by science. However, by observing those who love each other, we can indirectly measure the affect of love on these individuals’ actions. We might notice that they spend a lot of time together, they are constantly holding and kissing each other. Although we cannot measure love directly, we can measure the indirect effects of love. Likewise, although we cannot measure God directly, we can examine the universe to detect God’s imprint on the physical world.
The best evidence for design can be seen in the nature of the universe and how it came to be.
Big Bang –matter anti-matter: According to the ‘big bang’ theory for the origin of the universe, equal amounts of matter and antimatter should have formed.[I] Antimatter is the same as matter except that each particle has the opposite charge, magnetic moment, etc. For instance, the antiparticle for the negatively charged electron is the positively charged positron. Antimatter is supposed to be an exact counterpart to matter, down to the same mass. One speculation of why there have been no antimatter domains detected, at least in the nearby universe, is that soon after the ‘big bang,’ a slight asymmetry developed between matter and antimatter.1 After equal amounts of matter and antimatter had destroyed each other, this asymmetry allowed matter to dominate in our region of space.
A second speculation is that during the supposed inflation very early in the ‘big bang,’ matter and antimatter became segregated into ‘non-overlapping domains.’1 Excluding the loophole that there is one large domain of matter and one large domain of antimatter, the visible universe appears to be composed of all matter. Physical laws indicate that equal amounts of matter and antimatter would have been created in the proposed ‘big bang.’ Therefore missing antimatter in the universe should challenge the ‘big bang’ theory, an implication none of the long earth theorists are willing to discuss.
Further difficulty with the Big Bang hypothesis is that mathematical analysis shows that galaxies will not form by gravitational condensation from random statistical fluctuations in the cosmic gases because of the disruptive effect of the expansion of the Universe.
Without this brief period of nucleosynthesis, the early universe would have consisted entirely of hydrogen.[II] Likewise, the universe could not have been much larger than it is, or life would not have been possible.
Size of Universe: The large size of the universe has been said to be an argument against the existence of the God of Christianity. If the purpose of God were to create a place for humans to live, why din not God just create one star and one planet? Isn’t the existence of trillions of galaxies a complete waste? Does not the huge size and mass of the universe suggest that humans are just a cosmic accident among the numerous habitable planets? The scale of this subject is stupendous. On this cosmological scale our floating life station, planet Earth, is totally insignificant, having a radius of only six thousand kilometers. Likewise for the Moon, the Sun, and the whole Solar System which, discounting the comets, is contained within a radius of only 6 billion kilometers. In considering the origin of the Universe, even objects the size of our Milky Way galaxy with its billions of stars contained within a radius of a billion billion kilometers are of insignificant size. We are considering here the origin of all the galaxies constituting the metagalaxy (i.e. the whole known universe) so it is appropriate here to reflect on the nature of the metagalaxy[III].
An evolutionary model is the general idea that the Earth, the Universe and all things came into their present form by a slow gradual process of self-transformation—from an inchoate (imperfectly formulated ) rudimentary chaos of elementary matter over billions and billions of years into the present complex, intricate Cosmos that we know today. Whereas by a creation model is meant the idea that the Universe was brought into being by a special completed processes as a functioning, complete and balanced whole and has since been wearing down and disintegrating into disorder. The two philosophical viewpoints are diametrically opposed; all evolutionary models say the Universe goes from chaos to cosmos, while the creation model says it goes from cosmos to chaos.
The Right Laws of Physics:
The laws of physics must have values very close to those observed or the universe does not work “well enough” to support life. What happens when we vary the constants? The strong nuclear force (which holds atoms together) has a value such that when the two hydrogen atoms fuse, 0.7% of the mass is converted into energy. If the value were 0.6% then a proton could not bond to a neutron, and the universe would consist only of hydrogen. If the value were 0.8%, then fusion would happen so readily that no hydrogen would have survived from the Big Bang. The cosmic microwave background varies by one part in 100,000. If this factor were slightly smaller, the universe would exist only as a collection of diffuse gas, since no stars or galaxies could ever form. If this factor were slightly larger, the universe would consist solely of large black holes. Likewise, the ratio of electrons to protons cannot vary by more than 1 part in 1037 or else electromagnetic interactions would prevent chemical reactions. In addition, if the ratio of the electromagnetic force constant to the gravitational constant were greater by more than 1 part in 1040, then electromagnetism would dominate gravity, preventing the formation of stars and galaxies. If the expansion rate of universe were 1 part in 1055less than what it is, then the universe would have already collapsed.[IV]
Universal Probability: “Unlikely things happen all the time.” This is the mantra of the anti-design movement. However, there is an absolute physical limit for improbable events to happen in our universe. Some physicists have indicated that any of a number of different physical laws would be compatible with our present universe. However, it is not just the current state of the universe that must be compatible with the physical laws. Even more stringent are the initial conditions of the universe, since even minor deviations would have completely disrupted the process. For example, adding a grain of sand to the weight of the universe now would have no effect. However, adding even this small amount of weight at the beginning of the universe would have resulted in its collapse early in its history[V].
What do the non-believers say: Even though many atheists would like to dismiss such evidence of design, cosmologists know better, and have made statements such as the following, which reveal the depth of the problem for the atheistic worldview:
- “This type of universe, however, seems to require a degree of fine-tuning of the initial conditions that is in apparent conflict with ‘common wisdom’.”[VI]
- “Polarization is predicted. It’s been detected and it’s in line with theoretical predictions. We’re stuck with this preposterous universe.”
- [VII]“In all of these worlds statistically miraculous (but not impossible) events would be necessary to assemble and preserve the fragile nuclei that would ordinarily be destroyed by the higher temperatures. However, although each of the corresponding histories is extremely unlikely, there are so many more of them than those that evolve without “miracles,” that they would vastly dominate the livable universes that would be created by Poincare recurrences. We are forced to conclude that in a recurrent world like de Sitter space our universe would be extraordinarily unlikely.”[VIII]
The newest “solution” to design in the universe is a belief in the multi-universe theory. This theory requires one to believe that there are more universes in existence than the number of all the subatomic particles that exist in our universe. Our universe just happened to be one of the few that is able to support life.[IX]
What scientific evidence exists to support the multiverse model? None! Not only is there no evidence, the physics of our own universe requires that we will never be able to obtain any evidence about any other universe (even if it does exist).[X]
Even the Big Bang Theory made fun of the multi-verse on one of its segments.
On the other hand, the deist or theist says that God designed the universe with just the right laws of physics. Note that neither the multiverse nor the “God hypothesis” is testable. However, the “God hypothesis” is much simpler. The naturalistic explanation requires the presence of a complicated, unproved super universe that has the capacity to randomly spew out an infinite number of universes with different laws of physics. How does this hypothetical super universe know how to do this?
Only an intelligent, omnipotent, omniscient Being would be motivated and expected to produce any kind of universe such as what we see.
The evidence for design in the universe and biology is so strong that Antony Flew, a long-time proponent of atheism, renounced his atheism in 2004 and now believes that the existence of a Creator is required to explain the universe and life in it. Likewise, Frank Tipler, Professor of the Department of Mathematics at Tulane University, and a former atheist, not only became a theist, but is now a born-again Christian because of the laws of physics.[XI]
God’s Purpose for the Universe:
What does a universe look like that requires free will choice? First, there is a requirement for cause and effect. Since we live in such a universe, we tend to assume that cause and effect is a given. However, time, a necessary component of cause and effect, is a construct of this universe, and began at the initiation of the Big bang.[XII] In addition to time, it must be clear that choices exist, and that there are differences between those choices. The Bible says that we must choose between good and evil (which is why evil must exist, as well as night and day, hot and cold, up and down, etc.), and accept God’s solution (salvation through Jesus Christ) to the problem of evil.
There are two forms of revelation (general and special) that God has used to inform mankind of their choices. General revelation comes from nature itself. This is one reason why the universe is as big as what it is. If God had created one star and one planet, we might think about how it came to be, but we would have no way of studying those two objects to make any kind of inference about their origin. However, the Bible says that God spreads out the stars,[XIII] and that we can study the universe to see how great God is,[XIV] so that we are without excuse in rejecting Him.[XV]
[I] Taubes, G., Theorists nix distant antimatter galaxies, Science, 278:226, 1997
[II] Big Bang nucleosynthesis, Wikipedia. (For what it is worth!)
[III] Cosmology Tutorial, Part 3: Spatial Curvature; Flatness-Oldness; Horizon, Edward L. (Ned) Wright, UCLA.
[IV] evgeny Epelbaum, Hermann Krebs, Timo A. Lähde, Dean Lee, and Ulf-G. Meißner. 2013. Viability of Carbon-Based Life as a Function of the Light Quark Mass. Physical Review Letters DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.112502.
[V] Halliday, D. and R. Resnick. 1988. Fundamentals of Physics, 3rd ed. extended, New York: Wiley, p. 544. Note that universal time bounds for electronic computers have clock speeds between ten and twenty magnitudes slower than the Planck time- see Ingo Wegener, The Complexity of Boolean Functions (Stuttgart: Wiley-Teubner, 1987), 2.
[VI] Zehavi, I, and A. Dekel. 1999. Evidence for a positive cosmological constant from flows of galaxies and distant supernovae Nature401: 252-254401: 252-254.
[VII] Discovery Supports Astronomers’ Paradoxical Views of the Universe from Adler Planetarium & Astronomy Museum
[VIII] Dyson, L., M. Kleban, and L. Susskind. 2002.Disturbing Implications of a Cosmological Constant. Reprint from arXiv.
[IX] Glanz, J. 1999. AMERICAN PHYSICAL SOCIETY MEETING: Hawking Blesses the Accelerating Universe.Science 284: 34-35.
[X] The Origin-of-Life Prize from the Origin-of-Life Foundation, Inc.
[XI] “My approach to reality is different. I believe that we have to accept the implications of physical law, whatever these implications are. If they imply the existence of God, well, then God exists.” Tipler, F. 2007. The Physics Of Christianity.
[XII] “The conclusion of this lecture is that the universe has not existed forever. Rather, the universe, and time itself, had a beginning in the Big Bang, about 15 billion years ago.” Stephen Hawking The Beginning of Time. Penrose, R. 1966. An analysis of the structure of space-time. Adams Prize Essay, Cambridge University. Hawking, S.W. 1966. Singularities and the Geometry of space-time. Adams Prize Essay, Cambridge University. Hawking, S.W. and G.F.R. Ellis. 1968. The cosmic black-body radiation and the existence of singularities in our universe. Astrophysical Journal 152: 25-36. Hawking, S.W. and R. Penrose. 1970. The singularities of gravitational collapse and cosmology. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A: 529-548.
- [XIII] The following verses suggest that God created the universe through an expanding universe – what science has called the Big Bang. In many cases the Hebrew text indicates present tense – a process still continuing.
- Who alone stretches out the heavens, And tramples down the waves of the sea; (Job 9:8)
- Covering Thyself with light as with a cloak, Stretching out heaven like a tent curtain. (Psalm 104:2)
- It is He who sits above the circle of the earth, And its inhabitants are like grasshoppers, Who stretches out the heavens like a curtain And spreads them out like a tent to dwell in. (Isaiah 40:22)
- Thus says God the Lord, Who created the heavens and stretched them out, Who spread out the earth and its offspring, Who gives breath to the people on it, And spirit to those who walk in it, (Isaiah 42:5)
- Thus says the Lord, your Redeemer, and the one who formed you from the womb, “I, the Lord, am the maker of all things, Stretching out the heavens by Myself, And spreading out the earth all alone” (Isaiah 44:24)
- “It is I who made the earth, and created man upon it. I stretched out the heavens with My hands, And I ordained all their host.” (Isaiah 45:12)
- “Surely My hand founded the earth, And My right hand spread out the heavens; When I call to them, they stand together.” (Isaiah 48:13)
- That you have forgotten the Lord your Maker, Who stretched out the heavens, And laid the foundations of the earth; That you fear continually all day long because of the fury of the oppressor, As he makes ready to destroy? But where is the fury of the oppressor? (Isaiah 51:13)
- It is He who made the earth by His power, Who established the world by His wisdom; And by His understanding He has stretched out the heavens. (Jeremiah 10:12)
- It is He who made the earth by His power, Who established the world by His wisdom, And by His understanding He stretched out the heavens. (Jeremiah 51:15)
- The burden of the word of the Lord concerning Israel. Thus declares the Lord who stretches out the heavens, lays the foundation of the earth, and forms the spirit of man within him, (Zechariah 12:1)
[XIV] The heavens declare the glory of God; the skies proclaim the work of his hands. Day after day they pour forth speech; night after night they display knowledge. There is no speech or language where their voice is not heard. Their voice goes out into all the earth, their words to the ends of the world. (Psalm 19:1-4)
[XV] … what may be known about God is plain to them, because God has made it plain to them. For since the creation of the world God’s invisible qualities–his eternal power and divine nature–have been clearly seen, being understood from what has been made, so that men are without excuse. (Romans 1:19-20) And the heavens declare His righteousness, For God Himself is judge. Selah. (Psalm 50:6) The heavens declare His righteousness, And all the peoples have seen His glory. (Psalm 97:6)