The Bible tells us that the creation of plants (including flowering plants) on Day 3 of Creation Week actually predated the creation of dinosaurs on Day 6. Unfortunately the rock strata with its variety of fossils do not follow the order generally accepted appearance of extinction over billions of years as the evolutionary paradigm would claim, instead it more closely reflects the order of burial during and since the global Flood of Noah’s day (Genesis 6–9; cf. Luke 17:26–27), only about 4,500 years ago. Now as usual we will not deal with the inaccuracies of the evolutionary concept of Millions of Years Ago (mya), because in this instance it helps us to point out how far wrong their thinking is.
England’s Sir Walter Raleigh, who introduced tobacco and potatoes to Europe (best known for having supposedly used his expensive cloak to cover a mud puddle to protect the feet of Queen Elizabeth 1). He was beheaded by her successor, James I (of KJV Bible fame) in 1618, but not before he had become the first European to discover South America’s Mount Roraima. Its peak, some 9,219 ft above sea level, is in Venezuela.[i]
In the 1940s and 1950s, the discovery of fossils outside the accepted evolutionary position in biostratigraphy was usually honestly reported and discussed. In the following years, examples that could not be explained were simply ignored, never being mentioned again.
Now the question is how I am going to tie the three topics above into a coherent theme- just watch or rather read on. In addition, you may want to take a side trip because have you ever seen a fossil plant series in a museum display or textbook on evolution? Nope. Here you may find out why:
Mount Roraima is one of a group of table-top mountains (or mesas) made of quartz arenite (medium-grained detrital-loose material such as rock fragments or organic particles- that results directly from disintegration ) rock sandstone. By all orthodox geological methods, including radiometric ‘dating’, this rock is supposed to have been laid down no less than 1.7 (most say 1.8) billion years ago.
On the standard evolutionary geological column (Fig. 1), this was the Precambrian, well before there was supposed to be any multi-cellular life on Earth—only bacteria and algae. It is certainly long, long before there were supposed to be any plants on Earth capable of producing spores or pollen. The very earliest that evolutionists would tolerate anything even remotely like a seed-bearing plant is the late Devonian, around 380 million years ago.
The very earliest that evolutionists would even consider anything remotely like a seed-bearing plant is the late Devonian, around 380 million years ago. Yet fossils of spores and pollen have been found in the Roraima formation, as reported in a 1966 article in the prestigious journal Nature.[ii] That means they are at least 1,300 million, or 1.3 billion years ‘out of date’.
Researchers have reported finding several types of pollen from flowering plants in ‘dinosaur rock’ (Middle Triassic).[iii] On the evolutionary timeline this puts the origin of flowering plants ‘100 million years earlier’ than previously accepted.
Although such extensions in fossil ranges happen quite often,[iv] this one negates a long-held dogma of the evolutionary storyline. That is because these fossils would mean that flowering plants were present even at the beginning of the supposed dinosaur era.
No wonder that one finds pollen all the way down in Precambrian strata (supposedly more than a billion years before dinosaurs!).[v] Pollen, and many other fossils dramatically ‘out of place’ in relation to evolution’s supposed ‘timeline’, present a major problem to defenders of Darwin’s ideas.
There is a rationalization commonly used by evolutionists that can accommodate practically any fossil pattern into the evolutionary story—ghost lineages:[vi]
Ghost lineages are fossil lineages extended millions of years before the oldest find of a particular fossil. This occurs when fossils pronounced ‘ancestral’ based on morphology are thought to be much older than the evolutionary fossil dating indicates.
The colored items are the animals we know about, the uncolored ones are the ghosts filled it to make the leap from one to another. I’m a Believer aren’t you.
(the Monkees https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XfuBREMXxts )
Usually, a ghost lineage is assumed to have undergone ‘evolutionary stasis’ during the period for which there is no fossil evidence for its existence. But evolutionary stasis is itself a vacuous oxymoron seemingly designed just to keep people thinking that evolution explains all change, including no change.[ix]
Sometimes, however, some gaps are so large that filling it with one species is not enough. Though the concept of ‘ghost lineages’ is kept, the ‘evolutionary stasis’ assumption is thrown out. This constitutes inventing a whole ghost cladogram of unobserved species out of thin air when evolutionists think it is necessary:
“Short of extending the stratigraphic range of T. neglectus[x] across this stretch of time, it is more likely that the gap represents a ghost lineage partitioned by successive, but yet undiscovered species. Given the species longevity values calculated by Dodson (1990) it is clear that there must be considerable species diversity masked by the ghost lineage leading to T. neglectus, perhaps much more than the known diversity of the entire hypsilophodontid clade as presently recognized [emphasis added]!”[xi]
It has long been clear that the evolutionary/long-age framework of understanding is a powerful philosophical paradigm that resists falsification. Evolutionists have protested that it would be ‘easy’ to falsify evolution and its associated long-age system—just produce a substantially out-of-place fossil, e.g. pollen in the Cambrian.
Paleontology seeks to describe the location and history of fossils observed in the rocks. The spatial relationship between the fossils can be described directly as far as we can observe them—it is observational science. However, describing the distribution of fossils in time is completely different—it is natural history. Natural history is unrepeatable and unobservable. Reconstructing said history involves more than just what we directly observe in the rocks. Natural history is also bound up with the starting assumptions (or axioms) one brings to the investigation. One’s axioms determine what types of evidence are relevant and what could have happened in the past.
Auxiliary hypotheses, a concept coined by philosopher of science Imre Lakatos[xii], are an integral part of almost any core theory, such as evolution. They are used to explain evidence that at first glance appears contradictory to the core theory. Evolution, as a core theory, relies on many such auxiliary hypotheses to maintain its validity. This is not in and of itself a problem, but one needs to look at the evidential validity of the auxiliary hypotheses to see if the core theory can survive the claim of contradiction.
Ghost lineages (that is, lack of fossil evidence for lineages that evolutionists believe existed) are usually explained as resulting from the fluctuation of fossilization and evolutionary stasis. Nobody denies that fossilization is subject to many destructive conditions, and the fossils may create more gaps in our understanding of biology than they close. However, we have seen that ghost lineages are usually applied to essentially any discrepancy between the cladistics and stratigraphic ‘timelines’. Therefore, it is not an explanation per see; it is inherently an argument from silence—if there was evidence, ghost lineages would not need to be used.
Seems somebody was upset that I was using a piece of internet art without granting appropriate copyrights. You can read the intelligent discussion that followed, The individual impresses me, he did not turn out to be the same “type” of individuals who normally respond to my posting with a litany of labels that are vile and vulgar. Therefore, I was happy to discuss with him and point out a few items where I thought I was right. He did seem to get upset over my describing his as materialistic. If you do not believe in a supernatural cause to the universe then you are a materialist. Proponents of methodological naturalism argue that science has been so successful precisely because it has assiduously avoided invoking creative intelligence and, instead, searched out strictly material causes for previously mysterious features of the natural world. However, he either didn’t consider a decision worth continuing or he could not respond to my counterpoints.
I will produce a series of articles on how the concept of cladogram (while once a useful tool) has been proven as useless as well as the so-called evolutionary family tree. It will probably take until mid-November until I will have the time to write it and finish it up.
Paleontology seeks to describe the distribution pattern of fossils observed in the rocks, both spatially and temporally. The spatial relationships can be described directly—it is observational science. However, the temporal distribution of fossils is inescapably tied up with the presuppositions one brings to the historical investigation. One’s axioms determine what types of evidence are relevant and thus admissible to the paleontological discussion. Fossil patterns can’t give a history because they offer no description of themselves.
Back to the pollen. http://creation.com/roraima-pollen will provide you with far more information about the rock strata than you or I (unless you are a geologist) would care to know. I had to read it 5 times before I could finally understand what it was discussing. The basic conclusion is this: “Based on what has been published thus far and the established geological and mineralogical facts, the presence of pollen in Paleoproterozoic metasediments in the Roraima Supergroup remains a paradox. It can only be explained away through contamination if a whole range of improbable and contrary to sedimentological and hydrogeological tested facts are invoked.” In other words, the evolutionists are creating fairy tales to describe the inconsistencies
Oh, and that is not the only instance. Geologist Dr Clifford Burdick, was the first to report finding fossil pollen grains of seed plants in the so-called Hakatai Shale, a layer of the Grand Canyon classified as ‘Precambrian’. After extensive studying and testing accounting for all kinds of possible contamination and false positives, they came to this conclusion: “The weight of evidence favors the conclusion that fossil pollen is contained in ‘Precambrian’ shale.” This is contrary to expectations based on the accepted geological column.
The Bible tells us that the creation of plants (including flowering plants) on Day 3 of Creation Week actually predated the creation of dinosaurs on Day 6. And the rock strata with fossils do not represent the order of appearance and extinction over billions of years as the evolutionary paradigm would claim, but instead reflect the order of burial during and since the global Flood of Noah’s day (Genesis 6–9; cf. Luke 17:26–27), only about 4,500 years ago.
[i] The extent of the mountain (12 sq. miles) includes the triple border point of Venezuela, Brazil and Guyana (previously British Guiana).
[ii] Stainforth, R.M. Occurrence of pollen and spores in the Roraima Formation of Venezuela and British Guiana,
Nature 210(5033):292–294, 16 April 1966.
[iii] Hochuli, P. and Feist-Burkhardt, S., Angiosperm-like pollen and Afropollis from the Middle Triassic (Anisian) of the Germanic Basin (Northern Switzerland), Frontiers in Plant Science, 1 October 2013 | doi: 10.3389/fpls.2013.00344.
[iv] Oard, M.J., Further expansion of evolutionary fossil time ranges, Journal of Creation 24(3):5–7, 2010; creation.com/fossil-range-expansions.
[v] Stainforth, R., Occurrence of pollen and spores in the Roraima Formation of Venezuela and British Guiana, Nature 210(5033):292–294, 1966. However, evolutionists have steadfastly refused to allow that chronological extension to the ‘fossil range’.
[vii] An approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized based on shared unique characteristics that can be traced to a group’s most recent common ancestor and are not present in more distant ancestors.
[viii] Geiger, D.L., Fitzhugh, K. and Thacker, C.E., Timeless Characters: a response to Vermeij (1999), Paleobiology 27(1):177–178, 2001
[x] Thescelosaurus neglectus, “marvelous lizard,” was a moderately sized herbivorous dinosaur reaching lengths of up to 12 feet. Sometimes referred to as the “sheep of the dinosaur world,” Thescelosaurus appears to have had no defensive weapons and only a few dermal scutes for protection. This would suggest speed was its natural defense. For some reason, the toe bones are the most often reported fossil from Thescelosaurus-maybe the feet out ran the T. Rex’s after it.
[xi] Weishampel, D.B, Fossils, phylogeny, and discovery: a cladistic study of the history of tree topologies and ghost lineage durations, J. Vert. Paleontol. 16(2):191–197, 1996; p. 196
[xii] A philosopher of mathematics and science, known for his thesis of the fallibility of mathematics and its ‘methodology of proofs and refutations’ in its pre-axiomatic stages of development