Intelligent Design, The Science of it All

Phase 1

Phase 1 consists of three distinct but interrelated components: 1) the splitting of the Pangaea supercontinent by predominately horizontal movement and the beginning of earthquakes, volcanoes and tsunamis.

Let us start off with defining some terms that will be used throughout the remainder of this oeuvre (a collective body of articles) :

Plate tectonics Noun

  1. a theory explaining the structure of the earth’s crust and many associated phenomena as resulting from the interaction of rigid lithospheric plates that move slowly over the underlying mantle.

Lithospehere Noun

  1. Geology The rigid outer part of the earth, consisting of the crust and upper mantle.

Asthenosphere. Noun

  1. Geology The upper layer of the earth’s mantle, below the lithosphere, in which there is relatively low resistance to plastic flow and convection is thought to occur.

Magma   Noun

  1. hot fluid or semifluid material below or within the earth’s crust from which lava and other igneous rock is formed by cooling.

Plate deformation   Verb

  1. a change in the mode of bedding, volume, internal structure, or relative position of a body of rock under the action of deep-seated forces that give rise to conditions of unidirectional or multidirectional extension, compression, or displacement.

This image may help to understand the three types of deformation.


Plate Tectonics Noun

  1. Consists of one of three types of shearing a) Rifting (splitting, separating, or moving apart); b) transform faulting (vertical or horizontal slipping along a fault line; and c) subduction- when one plate descends beneath another.


Plate tectonics is believed to be the mechanism causing separation and horizontal movement of the supercontinent at various rift zones. It is a theory that describes continental movement in which the earth’s crust, or lithosphere, is segregated into crustal plates floating on a semi-fluid (plastic) asthenosphere. Seismic and tectonic activity would have occurred almost exclusively at plate boundaries as these plates moved relative to one another. As the plates separated in various areas, hot asthenosphere rock material (magma) would have erupted along the rift lines in the form of violent volcanoes and earthquakes, and magma rose to fill the gap left by the spreading plates.

Various features of Baumgardner’s (see ) tectonic modeling have been independently validated by other research scientists1. This model explains the tectonic mechanisms for rapid continental separation (horizontal rifting), catastrophic processes such as massive earthquakes and super-volcanic eruptions, and a worldwide flood resulting in the erosional landscape and geologic features we observe today.


Convection currents are shown in the asthenosphere. These currents are one of the major modes of large-scale heat and mass transfer in a fluid. The less dense liquid magma in the lower mantle would rise while denser rocks in the upper mantle would sink, creating slow, concentric currents within the mantle. This movement of warmer and cooler rocks creates pockets of circulation called convective cells. (For details please see:

These convection currents move mantle rocks only a few centimeters a year in this day and age but the circulation of these convective cells was most likely the driving force behind the rapid movement of crustal plates over the asthenosphere during the worldwide flood. No one has ever observed these convection currents in the earth’s mantle, and God’s word, the Bible, is silent about plate tectonics but we have plenty of scientific evidence for it and a hint of it in the Bible.

When an underwater earthquake occurs, an enormous volume of water is displaced and a shock wave races through the water for thousands of miles, often at speeds exceeding 200 miles per hour. In the deep oceans this energy wave does little damage. Once it reaches shallow waters, though, it can wrap around islands and shorelines and become a wall of water from ten to hundreds of feet high (depending on the severity of the quake). This wall of water can pick up anything in its path of destruction and deposit it’s load of sediment (trees, soil and anything manmade) as well as any sea creatures unlucky enough to be caught.

We have had several in recent history. Although devastating, killing hundreds of thousands of people along the coastlines, these tsunamis were small compared with those which would have occurred during Noah’s Flood.

Accompanying earthquakes and tsunamis would also be volcanoes which spew and spill hot molten rock, gases, and ash under intense pressure. There are perhaps 4,000 to 5,000 volcanoes in the world today, about 1,900 of which are considered active, and possibly another 1,500 to 2,000 extinct volcanoes. As with earthquakes, about 80 percent of all volcanoes exist within the “Ring of Fire” of the Pacific Ocean, the boundaries of crustal plates.

Map of the Ring of Fire

Some recent volcanoes have been destructive, they are not comparable to volcanoes of the past. One of the largest super volcanoes lies beneath Yellowstone National Park. A super volcano refers to a volcano that produces the largest and most destructive eruptions on earth. Yellowstone formed a 35-mile by 40-mile caldera (top of volcano; circular volcanic depression) and was thousands of times more powerful than any known volcano today.


(The caldera is outlined in black and various mild earthquakes are marked in red).

Although secular geologists maintain that the volcano erupted 600,000 years ago, the reality is, this volcano and many other ancient super volcanoes were actually formed during the year of the Flood just 4,400 years ago. Catastrophic earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and immense tectonics (horizontal and vertical earth movement) increased throughout phases 2 and 3 of the Flood (which will be discussed in detail later).

Phase 2:

Phase 3:

Or back to original article:




1 Sorry that this is so long but there is a lot of proof that other secular scientists have agreed about.

Catchpoole, Sarfati, and Wieland (2008), The Creation Answers Book. (D. Batten, Ed.). Atlanta, GA: Creation Book Publishers, 168. Also see Weinstein, S.A. (1993). Catastrophic overturn of the earth’s mantle driven by multiple phase changes and internal heat generation. Geophysical Research Letters, 2: 101-104; Tackley, P.J., Stevenson, D.J., Glatzmaier, G.A., and Schubert, G. (1993). Effects of an endothermic phase transition at 670 km depth on spherical mantle convection. Nature, 36: 699-704; and Moresi L., and Solomatov, V. (1998). Mantle convection with brittle lithosphere: Thoughts on the global tectonic styles of the earth and Venus. Geophysical Journal International, 133: 669-682. Other evidence of runaway subduction is the presence of pseudotachylyte (PST), a dark-colored, glassy material, formed by frictional melting during high-speed rock movement. According to Dr. Tim Clarey, Ph.D., “the presence of PST is considered evidence of high-speed rock movement….. documented at many locations around the world, including several in subduction zone settings.” (Clarey, T. (2013). Runaway subduction and deep catastrophic earthquakes. Acts & Facts, 42 (1), Dallas, TX: Institute for Creation Research; and Clarey, T.L. et al. (2013). Superfaults and pseudotachylyte: Evidence of catastrophic earth movements. In Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Creationism. Horstemeyer, M., Ed. Pittsburg, PA: Creation Science Fellowship, Inc.)


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