Intelligent Design

The universe revolves around the earth

I am constantly amazed at how often the secular evolutionary types continue to bring up ‘old wives tales’ of the flat-earth and the universe revolves around the earth theories when they can’t possibly continue to discuss or debate a particular subject intelligently.  What the big problem is, most of them even get the facts they try to fall back on wrong.  Therefore, here is a concise, chronologically and historically accurate history of “How the World Turns”

Alleged history of the Universe

cp_universe_chronology_large

Standard big bang Friedmann-Lemaître cosmology[1], derived from Einstein’s field equations, requires what is known as the cosmological principle to be true for it to be a valid solution of those field equations.  This then became the basis of today’s standard big bang model.

The cosmological principle is an extension of what is known as the Copernican principle, named after Nicolas Copernicus who advocated the idea that the Sun is at the centre of the Universe.  That was, of course, of the Universe as they understood it at that time, nearly 400 years ago.  This worldview is known as heliocentrism.

This is the fallacy that the others always fall back to- that this is the official position of the Church and the leaders of the world at that time. Of course, in the same breath or at least nearby they also state that scientific knowledge continues to grow, so do not hold the secular scientists to blame for thoughts that have since been proven wrong by technical advancements.

The Copernican principle is the assumption that the Earth is not at the centre of the Universe (i.e. instead the Sun is, in its original form). T he idea that the Earth is at the absolute centre of the Universe was the notion promoted by some Greek mathematician/philosophers like Aristotle and Ptolemy.[2]  At the time of Galileo,  the system describing the structure of the solar system and the stars beyond it was known as the Ptolemaic system.  It modified the perfect circles or spheres of Aristotle with a deferent and its epicycles.  These are ad hoc geometrical contrivances necessary to allow for elliptical orbits of the planets and their sometimes apparent-retrograde motions, notably of Mars.

Under Tycho Brahe, this system was further modified to account for observed fine-tuned motions, yet still maintaining the Earth at the centre of the system with the Sun orbiting around the Earth.  He refuted the pure Aristotelian system of a perfect unchanging realm and developed the Tychonic system which incorporated some aspects of the Copernican system into the Ptolemaic system yet maintaining geocentrism.  His very able assistant was Johannes Kepler, who went on to be one of the most brilliant astrophysicists of all time.  He developed his three laws of planetary motion with the aid of the vast wealth of Brahe’s meticulous observations, which he inherited after his teacher had died.  Kepler is supposed to have said he was “thinking God’s thoughts after Him.”

tycho's model

Galileo has been named the father of modern observational astronomy because in 1610 aided with a telescope (invented by Hans Lipperhey, a German spectacle maker in 1608) he discovered the four largest satellites (moons) of Jupiter: Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. He noticed that they revolved around their parent planet and not around the Earth. Therefore, he realized that the Earth was not at the center of the Universe.

Galileo was led to support and promote the Copernican notion of heliocentrism. There is much myth about these affairs but Galileo was opposed more by the geocentrist scientists of his day than by the Church which actually supported his work for many years until, through some untoward politics, he was accused of attacking Pope Urban VIII and the Jesuits. He was tried by the Holy Office of the Pope for heresy, forced to recant, and then banished to house arrest for the rest of his life.

Most modern-day astronomers believe Galileo was right—that the observational evidence in the solar system supports the notion that the planets, both major and minor ones, as well as the asteroid belt, revolve around the Sun. This is the heliocentric view of the solar system. With about 99% of the mass of the solar system in the Sun this seemed the only answer to what was observed. This view is what led Sir Isaac Newton to discover the universal law of gravitation, from which Kepler’s three laws of planetary motion can be derived.

The irony here is that Galileo promoted heliocentrism, for the whole Universe, but today very few people would believe in that, citing progressive knowledge. Today it is the cosmological principle that is believed to be the fundamental state of the Universe.

The cosmological principle extends the Copernican principle to the whole Universe. That is, the Earth does not occupy a special place in the Universe and observations made from Earth can be taken to be broadly characteristic of what would be seen from any other point in the Universe at the same epoch. On the largest scales, matter is assumed to be uniformly distributed (homogeneity) throughout the whole Universe and in every direction we look we see the same distribution of galaxies (isotropy). The extension of that notion is that the Universe has no centre and no edge. There is no privileged place and the Earth is randomly located in space.[3]

But doubt as to the accuracy of that belief arises within their own community.  Nobel laureate physicist Richard Feynman said, “ I suspect that the assumption of uniformity of the universe reflects a prejudice born of a sequence of overthrows of geocentric ideas. … It would be embarrassing to find, after stating that we live in an ordinary planet about an ordinary star in an ordinary galaxy that our place in the universe is extraordinary … To avoid embarrassment we cling to the hypothesis of uniformity.[4]

These images are taken from a NewScientist article with the title “’Axis of evil’ warps cosmic background”.[5]

What has been discovered by Max Tegmark is that when one expands these small CMB temperature anisotropies into spherical harmonics something very unusual is observed. The lowest order expansion term is the dipole term with a cold component behind and a hot component in front describing the motion of the solar system through space. The next are the quadrupole, octuple and many higher order terms.

Today we should be observing highly redshifted radiation, leftover from the big bang fireball, coming uniformly from all directions. There is no preferred direction for this radiation therefore these multiple expansion terms should also have no preferred directions in space.

qmb-dipole

What this means, is that according to all of their ‘scientific calculations’ based upon all of their theories and introducing the appropriate ‘fudge factors’ the colors in the CMB should be randomly scattered.

However this is not what has been discovered in all three sets of satellite data, and in the case of the PLANCK satellite data, out to the 20th harmonic expansion term. The spherical harmonic expansion terms have their axes preferentially aligned with the plane of the solar system—the elliptic—and even more strangely with the direction in space determined by the two points where the apparent path of the Sun crosses the equator. These points in the orbit of the Earth around the Sun are a mere projection due to the tilt of the Earth’s spin axis. Why would the leftover radiation from a random fireball have a preferred direction and why would it be aligned somehow with our solar system? There is no good reason in big bang cosmology. The preferred direction is such a problem it is called the Axis of Evil.  Now I have to admit it took me several readings to understand the following statement by one of the scientists analyzing the Axis of Evil.  It is technical and if you need further help please write me and we will work through it together: “It is possible that some feature of the big bang may have suppressed the quadrupole signal. One such scenario is that the universe is a peculiar shape like a flat slab or a doughnut. “That way some of the sloshing motions of matter that caused the temperature variations in the cosmic background would not have been able to occur,” says Vale.”

In the Catholic world prior to Galileo’s conflict with the Church, the majority of educated people subscribed to the Aristotelian geocentric view that the earth was the center of the universe and that all heavenly bodies revolved around the Earth, despite the use of Copernican theories to reform the calendar in 1582.  Biblical references Psalm 93:1, 96:10, and 1 Chronicles 16:30 include text stating that “the world is firmly established, it cannot be moved.” In the same manner, Psalm 104:5 says, “the Lord set the earth on its foundations; it can never be moved.” Further, Ecclesiastes 1:5 states that “And the sun rises and sets and returns to its place.”

 

[1] http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/139301/cosmology/27595/Friedmann-Lemaitre-models

[2] Aristarchus of Samos (c. 310 – c. 230 BC) developed a cosmology based on heliocentrism, saying that the Sun was at the center of the Universe, while the Earth and other planets revolved around it. Lawson, Russell M. (2004). Science in the Ancient World: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 19.

[3] J.G. Hartnett and K. Hirano, “Galaxy redshift abundance periodicity from Fourier analysis of number counts N(z) using SDSS and 2dF GRS galaxy surveys,” Astrophysics and Space Science, 318, 1 & 2, 13-24, 2008.

[4] Feynman, R.P., Morinigo, F.B. and Wagner, W.G., Feynman Lectures on Gravitation (Penguin Books, London), p. 166, 1999

[5] http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn8193-axis-of-evil-warps-cosmic-background.html#.UwgudoXucR0

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